Regulations

  1. NC Radiation Control Regulations (15A NCAC 11)
  2. NC Radioactive Material License,
  3. Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 10, Parts 20 and 35
  4. UNC-Chapel Hill Radiation Safety Manual (STIPULATED IN LICENSE)

University Policies

Policies of the Administrative Panel on Radiological Safety

Recommendations

  • NC Radiation Protection Section
  • “Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials,” National Council on Radiation Protection (NBS Handbook 92)
  • “Safe Handling of Radionuclides,” International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Safety Series No. 1, (1973 ed. is still current as of 1999)
  • “Structural Shielding and Evaluation for Medical Use of X-rays and Gamma Rays of Energies up to 10 MeV”, National Council on Radiation Protection, Report No. 49
  • “Structural Shielding Design for Medical X-ray Imaging Facilities”, NCRP, Report No. 147
  • “Radiation Protection Design Guidelines for0.1-100MeV Particle Accelerators,” National Council on Radiation Protection, Report No. 51, (NCRP51)
  • Guide for the Preparation of Application for Medical Use Programs, (Proposed Revision2 to Regulatory Guide 10.8, USNRC (NRC 10.8)
  • Guide for the Preparation of Applications for Type A Licenses of Broad Scope, 2nd Proposed Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide 10.5, Revision 2, USNRC (NRC10.5)
  • “CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 4th Ed.” CRC Press 1995, (CRCLAB)
  • “Recommendations for the Safe Use Of LASERS,” American National Standards Institute. (ANSI Z136.1)
All radioactive materials used at UNC-Chapel Hill are governed by the terms and conditions of the UNC-Chapel Hill Radioactive Materials Licenses, issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Environmental Health, Radiation Protection Section. All radiation producing devices are registered with the State of NC, Radiation Protection Section, Electronic Products Branch.
Contact the Radiation Safety Section of EHS as early as possible (at least 120 days) before the planned initiation of construction. A plan for decommissioning must be prepared following the UNC EHS Guidelines for decommissioning. The laboratory must be cleared of all radioactive sources/contamination before demolition, renovation or construction can begin.

Approval Process

Proposals for new facilities must be submitted to the Radiation Safety Section of EHS for review. New facilities may require the multiple approvals prior to construction.

NC Radioactive Material License
UNC-Chapel Hill Radiation Safety Manual

Architectural Considerations

Benches in laboratories must be capable of supporting weight of necessary shielding (e.g. lead).

NBS Handbook 92
IAEA, Safe Handling of Radionuclides

When work involves gamma emitters (especially gamma irradiators) the floors and coatings must be able to support the gamma shielding.

NBS Handbook 92
IAEA, Safe Handling of Radionuclides

When applicable, lead shielding must be incorporated in the structure. Based on the proposed type and quantities of radioactive materials, the Radiation Safety Section of EHS will determine the need for the shielding.

Note that for x-ray producing machines, shielding calculations will be performed by the Radiation Safety Section of EHS. Shielding design is to be in accordance with all applicable State Regulations and NCRP and ANSI standards. Designs must be submitted to the State through the Radiation Safety Section of EHS. During construction the shielding must be completed, the effectiveness of the installed shielding and protective design features shall be evaluated by the Radiation Safety Section of EHS and required reports submitted to and accepted by the State prior to operation of the radiation producing machine.

NC Radiation Control Regulations
National Council on Radiation Protection, Report No. 49, 147
NC Radioactive Material License

Security

Areas where radioactive materials or other radiation sources are used or stored shall be provided with adequate security (e.g., locks) to prevent removal or use by unauthorized personnel.

NC Radiation Control Regulations
UNC-Chapel Hill Radiation Safety Manual

High radiation areas or very high radiation areas (as defined in 15 A NCAC 11.0104) shall be equipped with means to prevent inadvertent access and restrict access to only authorized personnel. Means to reduce exposure levels in the area may be required via an interlock device. In some applications, means to monitor the radiation levels in the areas shall be provided.

NC Radiation Control Regulations

High radiation areas or very high radiation areas (as defined in 15 A NCAC 11.0104) shall be equipped with a control device that energizes a conspicuous visible or audible signal so that an individual entering the area and the operator of the device are made aware of the entry.

NC Radiation Control Regulations

Waste Storage

Adequate space must be available for radioactive wastes generated by projects within the lab. Most radioisotope projects will need about 15 sq. ft. of floor space for containers and shields within a lockable area.

UNC-Chapel Hill Radiation Safety Manual

Ventilation requirements for the laboratories utilizing radioactive materials are dependent upon the types of materials used. Facilities that use radioactive gases shall be equipped with ventilation to adequately maintain concentrations to below allowable occupational exposure levels and to not permit escape of the gas to adjacent non-use areas such that concentrations exceed those allowed for uncontrolled areas. These range from no special requirements to those requiring separate exhaust systems equipped with “panic button” shut down switches. The Radiation Safety Program will review the proposed uses and make specific recommendations appropriate for each facility.

10 CFR 20: Appendix B
UNC-Chapel Hill Radiation Safety Manual

Depending on the type and quantities of radioactive materials or the location of the facility, fume hoods used with volatile radioactive materials have specific design requirements. These are detailed in the Fume Hoods Section of this Design Guide.

Class IIIb and IV Laser facilities must be equipped with adequate shielding (e.g. thermal curtains using materials approved by the University’s Fire Marshal, window glass that does not transmit direct laser radiation or the specula or diffuse reflections of the laser radiation (shutters or filters)). Portals and viewing windows must be designed to prevent any exposure above the permissible threshold limit value.

ANSI Z136.1
CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 4th Ed.

Class IIIb and Class IV laser facilities must be in rooms secured by locks. Class IV laser installations must be provided with interlocked warnings that indicate the status of the laser prior to entering the facility.

ANSI Z136.1

Electrical outlets need to be positioned is such a manner that leakage of water coolant will not lead to risks of electrocution.

ANSI Z136.1

Appropriate ventilation to remove laser generated airborne contaminants must be provided for Class IIIb and IV lasers.

ANSI Z136.1

Gas cabinets and adequate ventilation must be provided to mitigate the hazards associated with excimer laser gases or other lasers using toxic gases.

ANSI Z136.1